Alon Chou

歷史概述 / Historical background

台灣原住民是最早居住在台灣的居民,在14個原住民族中,位於中央山脈的賽德克族以驃悍著稱,長久來遵循著GAYA(包括了泛祖靈信仰、祖訓、倫理規範,也包含了祭典,狩獵,耕作等),延續祖先的古老生活方式。1895年《馬關條約》簽訂,台灣割讓日本,日本人為了取得礦藏、木材等山地資源,深入番界與原住民發生了許多慘烈戰爭。

霧社位臺灣中部山區,霧社群賽德克族人以數十或數百人形成一個部落,共11個蕃社。日本政府為了對原住民的殖民管理與國威宣傳目的,加重對山地蕃區開發與教育,而1930年代的霧社更被日本視為蕃地管理模範。

雖有建設,但日人對原住民原本的生活習慣卻也多加限制,除了出草、紋面,還有許多傳統習俗遭到禁止,不得私自持有槍械,限制狩獵彈藥申請,傳統織布原料種植受到管制。傳統生計方式受到大量限制的原住民,只能變成日人的勞工與女傭,從自由自在的生活方式轉變為社會弱勢,被日警欺凌情事也時有耳聞。為了伐木與公共建設,不時徵召原住民服勞役,不僅耽擱了山田農耕與狩獵期,更因繁重的勞役,微薄的報酬,讓族人不堪負荷。

多年來日人撫育政策,與大和文化的衝擊,造成了維繫傳統部落社會的GAYA組織逐漸消失,族人生活型態改變以及自身文化認同產生了矛盾與困頓,抗日意識日漸萌芽。1930年馬赫坡社婚宴上的敬酒風波,日警無禮毆打莫那魯道之子造成雙方衝突,事後莫那魯道攜酒道歉未被接受,仍堅持嚴懲部落而引發了導火線。

霧社群總頭目莫那魯道,曾經受總督府招待日本觀光,見過軍校與兵工廠,他知道抗日沒有勝算,但族人不願意永被奴役,表達為尊嚴與拚死的決心。1930年10月27日運動會當天,莫那魯道率領三百多名視死如歸的原住民,共赴慘烈的義舉。因時間倉促,霧社地區11社僅馬赫坡社,坡阿崙社,斯庫社,荷歌社,塔羅灣社,洛羅富社,六社族人參戰。天未亮先攻陷駐在所切斷通訊,再攻進霧社地區聯合運動會會場,殺害134名日人,為台灣史上最大規模抗日事件。

事件爆發,震驚日本總督,下令緊急調派臺灣各地之軍警部隊進攻霧社。抗日族人退回森林,以分散的游擊戰為作戰方式。期間抗日族人多數戰死或自縊,日軍更藉以蕃制蕃的計謀,挑撥分化彼此原有仇恨的其他部落,以賞金利誘殺害抗日族人,死傷慘重,大量婦女為了讓丈夫作戰無後顧而自縊。最後日人以近四千人的部隊討伐三百餘名的武裝賽德克勇士,圍剿戰役進行四十餘日,始將事件剿平。

Taiwanese aborigines are the most early inhabitants in Taiwan. Among the 14 tribes, the Seediq, which resides in the Central Mountain, is most renowned for its bravery and valor. The tribesmen, for centuries, resolutely cling to Gaya---- which means pantheist belief, ancestral will or ethics that might include rituals, hunting and farming---- and continue the ancient form of life. The 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki ceded the island of Taiwan to Japan, which sought to transform Taiwan into the supply-end of an extremely unequal flow of assets. Several severe uprisings broke out when Japanese government tried to exploit the mountain resources of minerals and forests and invade the boundary of aboriginal inhabitants.

Wushe is located in central Taiwan, where 11 Wushe Seediq tribes are formed and each is composed of roughly tens or hundreds of people. To strengthen the power of colonization and imperialization the Japanese government reinforced the construction and civilization of the highland aboriginal area, among which Wushe has been regarded as the model of their taming approach.

Despite the constructions that benefit the local residents, Japanese government set many restrictions to the original lifestyles of the aborigines. Traditional conventions such as headhunting and tattooing were inhibited, and they were not allowed to own weapons privately nor apply for hunting munitions. The planting of traditional weaving fabrics was also under scrutiny. Restrained in their ordinary life, the aboriginal people could not but serve as laborers and maids for Japanese. Suddenly, these free men became the underprivileged minorities, and the news of their being bullied broke out constantly. For the sake of public construction and deforestation, these aboriginal people were constantly recruited. The best period for their farming and hunting was delayed, and the heavy labor and meager salary made their life almost unbearable.

More significantly, wholesale attempts at the “Japanization” of aboriginals through mass enculturation into Japanese language shattered their sacred beliefs in Gaya. Their form of life and self-identification had been disintegrated. Resentment among the tribesmen against Japanese had been simmered.

In the days immediately prior to the incident, the spark that set off the conflagration resulted from a wedding banquet from Mahebo Tribe, the local Japanese constable refused a toast from Tado Mona and beat him up, and a fight broke out between the police officer and the group. The officer was injured, and insisted on severe punishment for them.Mona Rudo attempted to apologise by presenting several bottles of wine at the officer’s house, but this was rejected. The simmering resentment among the Seediq in Wushe was finally pushed to the limit.

Mona Rudo, as the chief of the Wushe Seediq tribe, had been selected for a tour of Japan, where he sees the Spartan military schools and armories. He knew that there was not a slightest hope of winning, but to keep the dignity and glory of the tribe, he could never allow the people’s fate of being slaves. On October 27th, 1930, hundreds of Japanese converged on Wushe for an athletics meet at the Taiwan-Chinese Musyaji Elementary School. Without planning in advance, there are only six tribes out of eleven participating in this rebellion: Mahebo, Boalum, Hogo, Talowan, Suku, and Rodof. Shortly before dawn, Mona Rudo led over 300 Seediq braves in the raiding of strategic police sub-stations to capture weapons and ammunition. They then moved on the elementary school, concentrating their attack on the Japanese in attendance. 134 Japanese were killed in the attack. It is the largest-scaled uprising against colonial Japanese forces throughout the Taiwanese history.

Greatly struck by the outbreak of the resurrection, the Japanese Governor-General ordered a counter-offensive of troops around the island to be sent to Wushe. The Seediq were forced to retreat into the forests and carried out guerrilla attacks. During this period most of the warriors died or committed suicide. Worst, the Japanese soldiers use the strategy of “Barbarians against barbarians”, playing off one tribe against the other and even bribing the Seediq tribesmen to kill their warriors. It is also said that more than one hundred Seediq women hanged themselves during the rebellion in order to free their husbands from the burden of taking care of them.

The Japanese authorities reacted with unprecedentedly crushing force. A massive military troop of nearly 4000 people was mobilised within this period. Forty days later the uprising was finally put down.

畫面靈感來源 / Source of inspiration

畫面構成的靈感是依據兩段當年參戰族人的歷史回憶錄的記載,再作情境組合:

「這時,在馬赫坡參加殺戮日本人的各社頭目召開了會議。以馬赫坡社頭目莫那魯道為中心,荷歌社頭目塔達俄諾康、坡阿倫社頭目瓦利斯貝列克、斯庫社頭目畢荷莫那、塔羅灣社頭目莫那貝卡俄、及洛羅富社的代表波荷庫瓦利斯都參加了會議………決定各社戰鬥位置……。會議之後,莫那魯道下令殺豬,大家一同喝了最後的離別酒,那是怎麼喝都喝不醉的悲傷訣別酒。『為了那些可惡的塔納哈扥諾混(日本人),我們都得死去…』頭目們都傷心的哭了,然後擦乾眼淚,各自向部下下達決死的訓示……斷絕對現世的一切眷戀,以示奮勇戰鬥到最後一口氣的決心。」

「十一月一日,飛機在上空怒吼,盤旋,連續不斷地對魯庫達亞轟炸。每次轟炸,被炸碎的峭壁岩石,四下崩裂飛散,天動地搖,巨大的岩石滾落山谷間。但我們都是一派英雄氣概,深知今天將會戰死在此地」

The inspiration of the visual composition of the painting is based on the two fragments of the warriors’ memoir, which I incorporate them into one image based on my imagination.

At this time, the chiefs who joined in slaughtering Japanese in Mahebo Tribe held a meeting. Mona Rudo from Mahebo took the lead, Leader Tado Nokan from Hogo, Leader Walis Peric from Boalum, Leader Bihu Mona from Suku, Leader Mona Beko from Talowan, Representative Puhuk Walis from Rodof, all joined this meeting…. to decide fighting position for each tribe…… After the meeting, Mona Rudo gave order to sacrifice. Everyone drank the last farewell wine, which is a sorrow wine that can never be enough to intoxicate us. For the sake of those Japanese we have to die. The chiefs all cried in sorrow. Still, they wiped their tears, ordering their subordinates to fight to the death. ….they broke the attachment to the mortal world, just to sustain the determination to fight until the very end.

On November 1st, airplanes roared across the sky. They span over, and kept bombing Lukudaya. With each bombing, rocks between the cliffs were shattered and crumbled into pieces flying out everywhere. Earth and sky were shaken, and giant boulders tumbled into the valley. But we were still heroic, knowing that we would fight to the death in this land.